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How CPJ Investigates and Classifies Attacks on the Press

CPJ's research staff investigated and verified the cases of press freedom violations described in this volume. Each account was corroborated by more than one source for factual accuracy, confirmation that the victims were journalists or news organizations, and verification that intimidation was the probable motive. CPJ defines journalists as people who cover news or write commentary on a regular basis. For additional information on individual cases, contact CPJ at (212) 465-1004. CPJ classifies the cases in this report according to the following definitions:
 
Attacked 
In the case of journalists, wounded or assaulted. In the case of news facilities, damaged, raided, or searched; non-journalist employees attacked because of news coverage or commentary. 

Censored 
Officially suppressed or banned; editions confiscated; news outlet closed. 

Expelled 
Forced to leave a country because of news coverage or commentary. 

Harassed 
Access denied or limited; materials confiscated or damaged; entry or exit denied; family members attacked or threatened; dismissed or demoted (when it is clearly the result of political or outside pressure); freedom of movement impeded. 

Imprisoned 
Arrested or held against one's will; held for no less than 48 hours.

Killed 
Murdered, or missing and presumed dead, with evidence that the motive was retribution for news coverage or commentary. Includes accidental deaths of journalists in the line of duty. 

Legal Action 
Credentials denied or suspended; fined; sentenced to prison; visas denied or 
canceled; passage of a restrictive law; libel suit intended to inhibit coverage. 

Missing 
No group or government agency takes responsibility for the journalist's disappearance; in some instances, feared dead. 

Threatened 
Menaced with physical harm or some other type of retribution.