DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO
The murder of freelance journalist Bapuwa Mwamba in the weeks before historic national elections cast a deep chill over the media, whose members were already subject to frequent attacks and intimidation. Mwamba was the second journalist to be shot to death in his home in eight months. Attacks on the press rose sharply in the run-up to July 30 parliamentary and presidential polls; the presidential race, which went to a runoff in October, was particularly divisive. Journalists were subject to violence, censorship, and arbitrary imprisonment by government forces, political factions, and rogue elements. Authorities also expelled a foreign correspondent. The courts provided little protection against abuses in this war-ravaged, corruption-plagued country. Partisan and inflammatory reporting in some sections of the media contributed to the political tensions.